English Grammar : article, syntax, verbs conjugation, English spelling

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  • above -- at a higher level (see “over”) “The plane flew above the clouds.”
  • below -- at a lower level (see “under”) “The divers went 100 feet below the surface of the ocean.”
  • beside -- near, at the side of “There is a small table beside my bed.”
  • next to -- right beside, close to “Sam sat next to his boss at the meeting.”
  • (in) between -- in the space that separates two objects “She parked her car (in) between the two trucks.”
  • behind -- at the back of “In baseball, the umpire stands behind the catcher.”
  • in front of -- at the front of “There is a beautiful oak tree in front of our office.”
  • in -- within a space “Is the ketchup in the refrigerator?” (Note: “In” usually describes a place or condition. To talk about movement, use “into.” For example, “She walked INTO the room.” The opposite of “into” is “out of.” For example, “After five minutes, she walked OUT OF the room.”)

  • inside -- within a space “My father put our clothes inside his suitcase.” (Note: “In” and “inside” mean almost the same thing when talking about place. However, because “in” has so many different meanings and uses, “inside” is thought of as more definite.)

  • outside -- not within a space “We have met many tourists from outside the country.”
  • on top of -- over, upon “There is a man standing on top of that house!” (Note: “On top of” usually means that there is contact between the two objects. This expression is often shortened to “on.” For example, “The coffee cup is on the table.” However, “on” has many more meanings and uses, so it doesn't always mean the same thing as “on top of.” For example, “The painting is hanging ON the wall.”)

  • underneath -- directly below (see “below” and “under”) “The cat hid underneath my chair.”
  • over -- on top of, but not touching “The branches of the big tree hung over
  • under -- below, covered by “There is a subway station under this building.”

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